In the last two decades, Indonesia has seen a dramatic proliferation of environmental disputes in a variety of sectors, triggered by intensified deforestation and large scale mining operations in the resource rich outer islands, together with rapid industrialisation in the densely populated inner island of Java. Whilst the emergence of environmental disputes has sometimes attracted political repression, attempts have also been made in recent times to explore more functional approaches to their resolution. The Environmental Management Act of 1997 created a legal framework for the resolution of environmental disputes through both litigation and mediation. This book is the first attempt to analyse the implementation of this framework in detail and to assess the effectiveness of litigation and mediation in resolving environmental disputes in Indonesia.
The impact of environmental damage on human rights - civil, political or welfare and labour rights - is becoming ever-more widely appreciated and has direct bearing on the behaviour of companies and their norms of conduct. In this volume, contributors draw on the tools and insights of a range of disciplines, including law, anthropology, economics, geography and social science, to analyze the issues and show how new standards that protect rights and liberties can be established.